Issue 16 | February 8, 2019
8 min read

Alternatives to patenting phages: trade secrecy

In past issues, we covered what it means to patent something & whether patenting works for phages. In this issue, we dive into an alternative to patenting: trade secrecy.

This week’s issue is part of a multi-part issue on patenting phage therapeutics (see part I here and part II here). Our main source for this deep-dive has been this paper by Kelly Todd, Duke University School of Law J.D. / M.A. student.

What’s New

Have an idea for us? Send us a tip!

The 4th annual OSU Viromics Workshop is May 8-10, 2019. The workshop kicks off with a mini-symposium, then introduces students and postdocs (and possibly early career faculty) to the informatics tools available to develop biological understanding of viruses from metagenomic datasets. Apply now!

BioinformaticsWorkshopMetagenomics

Guy Schleyer and colleagues published a new paper on “in-plaque” mass spec imaging to visualize what happens during (algal) viral infection. Here’s the original paper and a blog post on the work.

Novel methodResearch

Robert Edwards and (many!) colleagues have published an exciting new preprint on the phylogeography and evolution of crAssphage around the world.

Gut microbiomecrAssphagePreprint

Anushila Chatterjee and colleagues published a new preprint showing that phage resistance in enterococci leads to reduced antibiotic resistance and reduced mouse gut colonization.

Phage BiologyAntibiotic ResistancePreprint

Research Assistant: Antimicrobial resistance / phage therapy

International Livestock Research Institute,
Nairobi, Kenya

The International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) seeks to recruit a Research Assistant to provide technical assistance to a team working on the use of phages as a One Health approach for the replacement of antibiotics, and reduction of drug resistant nontyphoidal Salmonella in poultry farms in Kenya.

Research Assistant AMRPhage Therapy

Research technologist: Bacterial blotch of mushroom

Penn State University,
Pennsylvania, PA

The Department of Plant Pathology and Environmental Microbiology is seeking a Research Technologist to perform a primary role in developing biological control cocktails that could be used to suppress bacterial blotch of mushroom in organic production systems. Specific projects will include enriching, isolating, and characterizing bacteriophage that specifically target blotch inciting pathogens, as well as screening mushroom colonizing non-pathogenic bacteria for the ability to antagonize mushroom pathogens.

Research Technologist Plant pathogensPhageBiocontrol

Postdoctoral position: Marine viral ecology

Louisiana State University,
Baton Rouge, LA

Dr. Jennifer Brum

Dr. Jennifer Brum is seeking a highly-motivated postdoctoral researcher to investigate viral ecology and viral effects on biogeochemical cycling in seven globally-distributed marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs).

Post Doc Marine virology

Postdoctoral position: Antimicrobial resistance

University of Lincoln,
Lincoln, UK

A Research Fellow is required within the School of Life Sciences to support a new project in collaboration with partners in China entitled ‘Novel biocontrol to combat Clostridium perfringens in poultry flocks’. Ideally you will have a strong background in microbiology/molecular biology and some knowledge of bacteriophage technology.

Post Doc PoultryBiocontrolPhage

Postdoctoral position: Antimicrobial resistance / phage therapy

International Livestock Research Institute,
Nairobi, Kenya

The International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) seeks to recruit a Postdoctoral Scientist to provide high level scientific and technical support to a new project on phages as a One Health approach for the replacement of antibiotics, and reduction of drug resistant nontyphoidal Salmonella, in poultry farms in Kenya.

Post Doc AMRPhage Therapy

PhD student position: Marine microbiology

Texas A&M Corpus Christi,
Corpus Christi, TX

Dr. Jeffrey Turner and Dr. Daniele Provenzano

The successful applicant will conduct research related to bacterial genomics, pathogenesis and molecular biology. The project entails dissecting the contribution of a novel bacteriophage in modulating cold-shock adaptation and animal model colonization using molecular cloning and gene knock-out/complementation techniques in Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a marine pathogen of human and ecological relevance.

PhD Marine microbiologyPhage

Community Board

Anyone can post a message to the phage community — and it could be anything from collaboration requests, post-doc searches, sequencing help — just ask!

February 8, 2019

Seeking tips on how to isolate P. larvae phages

Massey University

Heather Hendrickson
Auckland, New Zealand

Phage Friends! We need help! We have processed over 300 soil samples looking for phages on Paenibacillus larvae… (the bee pathogen) here in NZ. Have you ever looked SO HARD for a phage and not found one? Suggestions? Ideas? Sympathy? PLEASE? (Bonus: check out all the tips the phage community has already shared via Twitter!)

Phage IsolationLab tips

Alternatives to patenting phages: trade secrecy

Jessica Sacher, PhD
Co-founder of Phage Directory

In past issues, we covered what it means to patent something and whether patenting works for phages (hint: it’s possible, but we probably need to explore alternatives).

In this issue, we’re continuing our dive into this subject and talking about alternatives to patenting. First up: trade secrecy. What is it, how would it apply to phages, and what are its pros and cons?

Recap: Why patent something?

As a reminder, patents serve to protect investments because they prevent competition (for a while). This gives the people who spend the money to manufacture something (e.g. a drug) and bring it to market (e.g. get it through clinical trials, make enough of it to get it on the shelves, and actually market and sell it) a fighting chance to actually recoup these enormous costs and make money.

When something isn’t protected under a patent, competitors (who didn’t pay for much of the above) can come in, manufacture the already-approved product, and sell it for a lot less (since they don’t have the same massive costs to recoup).

Bottom line: someone needs to make the investment into making and evaluating a brand new product, and patents are a way of incentivizing that investment.

Why do we need patent alternatives?

Phages are found in nature, so their patentability has been questioned (and even when phage patents have been granted, it’s uncertain they’ll hold up in court). Because of this uncertainty, we likely need to explore other ways of protecting investments into phage products. One viable alternative is trade secrecy.

What is a trade secret?

A trade secret is confidential information that gives a business a competitive edge (the most famous example is the process of making Coca Cola). Maintaining trade secrecy is a common way life sciences companies protect inventions that are not sufficiently protected by patents.

An example would be if a company developed a process of manufacturing their product and didn’t tell anyone how they did it. Since manufacturing processes can be quite sophisticated and difficult to replicate / reverse-engineer by someone on the outside, trade secrecy works well in situations like this.

Like patents, trade secrets are enforceable by law, as long as they:

  • Are not generally known to public,
  • Derive some economic benefit from being unknown, and
  • Are kept secret through reasonable efforts.

Key differences between trade secrets and patents

  • Trade secrets do NOT require disclosure to competitors (unlike patents), and
  • Trade secrets can be held indefinitely (unlike patents, which expire after ~20 years)

Bottom line: trade secrecy essentially grants an “indefinite pseudomonopoly”, and as such can help protect (and thus encourage) investments into product development, even when that product is difficult/impossible to patent.

Trade secrecy and phages

Phage companies are already relying on trade secrecy to protect their interests. For instance, the public phage biotech company Ampliphi Biosciences has described its use of trade secrecy.

Types of phage-related trade secrets:

  • Innovative methods of phage purification, preparation, amplification, and storage (likely protectable as trade secrets since difficult for outsider to replicate/guess)
  • Knowledge of the phages comprised within cocktails/libraries, knowledge of the bacterial strains each can lyse (may be protectable as trade secrets, though less certainty here, since many of these secrets would be “out” once these products were administered publicly)

Drawbacks of trade secrecy

Too much trade secrecy can hinder innovation. With less sharing of knowledge, the costs of innovation in a field are higher, and the speed of innovation is slower. This extends not only to others in the same industry, but also to non-competitors in other industries.

For example, phage-related knowhow in the healthcare industry could help those developing phage products for the food industry or for environmental sanitation. So while keeping this information secret may help one company, this act may hinder progress in entirely separate industries.

Bottom line: trade secrecy can be a good option for protecting and encouraging investment into phage-based products, but comes with important tradeoffs, and likely isn’t a perfect solution on its own.

Thanks for reading! Next time, we’ll discuss additional solutions that could supplement trade secrecy.
– Jessica <>={

Main source:

Kelly Todd, The Promising Viral Threat to Bacterial Resistance: The Uncertain Patentability of Phage Therapeutics and the Necessity of Alternative Incentives, 68 Duke Law Journal 767-805 (2019)
Available at: https://scholarship.law.duke.edu/dlj/vol68/iss4/3

Capsid & Tail

Follow Capsid & Tail, the periodical that reports the latest news in phage therapy and the phage community.

We send Phage Alerts to the community when doctors require phages to treat their patient’s infections. If you need phages, please email us.

Supported by

Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust

Crossref Member Badge