Could phages cure asthma?

Issue 76 | May 22, 2020
12 min read
Capsid and Tail

This week, we’re spotlighting CURE, a multidisciplinary project laying the foundation for treating and curing asthma with phages.

What’s New

Denish Piya (UC Berkeley) and colleagues at the Center for Phage Technology in Texas published a new paper in Scientific Reports on using genome-wide screens to identify Escherichia coli host factors required for propagation of two novel phages (T1- and V5-like). This is the first time genome wide screens have been done for these classes of phages. And what’s more, these phages are available as components of a prebiotic, PreforPro.

Phage characterizationPrebioticsResearch paper

Eugene Koonin (NCBI) and colleagues published a new paper on a new proposed megataxonomy of the virus world. Simon Roux raves about this paper on Twitter, calling it a “near-complete unification of viral taxonomy”, and lists his favourite new phage taxon names and their meanings in this thread!

Research paperTaxonomy

Ortal Yerushalmy (Hebrew University of Jerusalem) and colleagues published a new paper in Antibiotics describing their newly-created Israeli Phage Bank (IPB). Read about their collection of around 300 phages matching around 21 bacterial species, their goals for their phage bank, and more!

Phage TherapyPhage collection

Check out this fantastic spotlight of the people and goals behind BCM TAILΦR Labs, a recently-established phage therapy service center at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas. Founders Anthony Maresso, Austen Terwilliger and Sabrina Green are interviewed.

InterviewPhage Therapy

Dr. Panos Kalatzis gives a detailed interview on starting his biotech company Aquatic Biologicals in Greece, which is using phages to target fish pathogens threatening aquaculture.

BiotechInterviewPhage in agriculture

A new phage therapy book edited by Aidan Coffey (Cork Institute of Technology, Ireland) and Colin Buttimer (University College Cork, Ireland) has been published by Caister Academic Press. The book is entitled “Bacterial Viruses: Exploitation for Biocontrol and Therapeutics”.

BookPhage Therapy

Computational biologist Dr. Alejandro Reyes Muñoz (Universidad de los Andes, Colombia) discusses virus and phage basics, phage-host interactions, and the novel coronavirus on the Finding Genius Podcast.

Phage-host interactionsPodcast

It’s been 2 years since Isabelle Carnell-Holdaway, a teenager in the UK with cystic fibrosis, was treated by the Hatfull Lab’s Mycobacterium abscessus phages. Here’s an update on how she’s doing now!

NewsPhage Therapy

EIT Health Catapult in Germany is having a pitch competition for its regional BioTech category finalists, and one of them is PhagoMed, a phage therapy company out of Austria. Tune in May 26 to watch the pitch!

BiotechPhage TherapyVirtual Event

Phage GIFs galore! Curtis Hoffman (@phagehunter on Twitter) has collected a large assortment of phage GIFs!

FunScience communication

Latest Jobs

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Eligo Bioscience (Paris, France) is hiring a Bacteriophage Formulation Scientist to tackle the ambitious challenges of ensuring phages and phage-derived particles can be delivered to particular microbiome sites of the human body.
Vulcan Biologics (Boston, MA) is developing novel in situ microbiome modulating technologies through the use of bacteriophages. They’re hiring a senior scientist (microbiology), who will be instrumental in establishing and executing the microbiology program, and a research associate (microbiology), who will play a key role in executing the microbiology program.
Odyssey Systems is hiring multiple positions for a Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) contract related to phage therapy: a senior molecular phage biologist and a microbiology research technician level II and level IV.

Community Board

Anyone can post a message to the phage community — and it could be anything from collaboration requests, post-doc searches, sequencing help — just ask!

May 22, 2020

Apply to present in the Phage Directory Virtual Event Series!

Phage Directory

Sign up to present your research in the upcoming Phage Directory Virtual Events Series! And let us know who you’d like to hear from, or suggest a topic, by contacting us on Slack or via email: [email protected].

We’ll be tailoring the format of these talks to each presenter/topic. Formats we’re considering: research seminar, panel discussion, mini poster blitz sessions, one-on-one interviews, journal club, informal mixer, AMA (Ask Me Anything).

We’re already putting the summer schedule together, so please register your interest by June 5! And if you’re interested in sponsoring, email [email protected] and we’ll send you details.

And a very special thank you to Stephanie Lynch, who is helping us organize!

Apply NowVirtual Event
May 22, 2020

Save the date for Episode Three of All About Phage Therapy!

Vitalis Phage Therapy

Tune in at 11 a.m. IST this Sunday, 24th May for a live discussion with Dr. Gopal Nath, who will talk to us about his experiences with clinical application of phage therapy, presenting phage therapy to medical regulators, and the century-old connection of phages to the river Ganges, which flows through the historic city of Varanasi, where he resides, and lots more!

Catch the recordings of episodes 1 and 2 (interviews with Sanjay Chhibber and Mzia Kutateladze) here.

Phage TherapyVirtual Event

Could phages cure asthma?

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Phage microbiologist and co-founder of Phage Directory
Co-founder
Phage Directory, Atlanta, GA, United States

Jessica Sacher is a co-founder of Phage Directory and has a Ph.D in Microbiology and Biotechnology from the University of Alberta.

For Phage Directory, she takes care of the science, writing, communications, and business aspects.

This week, we’re spotlighting CURE, a European Horizon 2020-funded, multidisciplinary project aiming to lay the foundation for treating and curing asthma by first understanding the microbiome and immunology associated with the disease, then strategically applying phages.

The main sources for this article are the two newsletter updates published by CURE: the first in Winter 2019 and the most recent in Spring 2020.

What do we know about asthma?

30 million people in Europe suffer from asthma, but it isn’t well-controlled, and there is no cure. Among what’s known is that asthma is associated with improper immune responses, and that exacerbations tend to correlate with viral infection (e.g. rhinoviruses). Not much is known about the role of the microbiome in asthma, but it’s possible that microbes have an impact on asthma through their impact on the immune response.

Enter the CURE project

The CURE (Constructing a Eubiosis Reinstatement Therapy for Asthma) project is a multi-center initiative aiming to use phage therapy to rebalance the structure of the airway microbiome, to hopefully control the immune dysregulation of asthma and eventually cure it. It is made up of research institutions in Greece, Poland, Switzerland, Sweden, UK, and Georgia, as well as allergy and airway disease-related patient associations in Europe. The CURE project, which began in 2017, was funded by Horizon 2020, a European Union initiative that emphasizes excellent science, industrial leadership and tackling societal challenges.

Why phages?

The idea of looking into phages in the context of asthma came from the observation that people with asthma had fewer phages in their respiratory tract than healthy people. Could the phages in healthy people be keeping certain bacteria in check, or could the absence of phages point to an absence of certain bacteria needed to maintain health? This was what prompted the CURE team to get together to start their project.

Mapping out the airway microbiome, predicting phage effects, and designing interventions

One of the CURE project’s first steps was to study and compare asthmatic vs. healthy respiratory microbiomes (including the viromes and viral-bacterial interaction networks), alongside clinical phenotypes. Next, they would set out to model the microbial ecosystem in the airways and the potential impacts phages might have on both the microbiome and the host immune system.

Based on the learnings from these first steps, they aimed to build up a well-characterized phage library against strains likely to be relevant to asthma treatment (this part would be done by the Eliava Institute in Georgia). They’d also look at the impact of phages on immune cells and respiratory tissues. Ultimately they aimed to develop phage cocktails to selectively alter the respiratory microbiome of asthmatic patients in a way they hope will treat or even cure the patients’ asthma.

CURE progress to date

The CURE project has reached its halfway point, as described in their Spring 2020 newsletter. So far, they’ve followed 60 asthmatic patients and 30 healthy individuals for a year, analyzing the airway microbiomes and correlating these with symptoms and immune responses.

Multiple asthma-specific microbiomes

So far, they’ve essentially seen a personalized microbiome for each patient, with a core set of microbial families that is fairly stable over time. And yet, with asthmatic patients, they saw more “dispersed” microbiomes compared with healthy individuals, suggesting the existence of multiple disease states vs. a relatively stable healthy state. They also saw that they could use “steady state” microbiome characteristics to cluster asthmatic patients according to those who had an exacerbation during the study.

Phages don’t harm airway tissue, but do alter immune cell numbers and activation states

The CURE group has also looked into the effects of phages on airway epithelial cells and immunity, and found so far that (at least Staphylococcus phages) don’t affect tissue integrity or tight junctions. However, they did see phage-induced effects on innate immune cell numbers and activation states, suggesting phages may play a role in immune tolerance and inflammation.

The beginning of an asthma-relevant phage collection

The CURE group has started collecting phages (against upper respiratory bacteria considered important in asthma, like Moraxella, Acinetobacter, Streptococcus, Haemophilus and Staphylococcus). So far, they’ve discovered and characterized at least 30 new phages. They’ve also reported developing an algorithm to describe the phage-bacteria network in the airway, which has allowed them to start predicting phage host ranges.

Next steps: modeling phage impacts on asthma

The CURE project’s next steps will involve developing computational models of how the asthmatic airway microbiome changes over time, and modeling and predicting the impact of phage interventions.

Regulatory hurdles

One main hurdle described by the CURE team pertains to European regulation surrounding phage therapy. Put simply, in most European countries, regulatory hurdles stand in the way of using phages outside of compassionate use (last-resort) treatments. This will clearly pose a problem long-term, since the CURE project’s vision is to eventually treat patients with asthma, who would depend on phages being authorized for use beyond last-resort treatments.

As an encouraging exception, the group describes the promise of Belgium’s Magistral Phage pathway for pharmacist-administered phages. To further explain, they feature an interview with Dr. Jean-Paul Pirnay of the Queen Astrid Military Hospital, who played a key role in bringing about the magistral phage framework in Belgium, and who is a member of CURE’s Ethics Advisory Board.

Summary

We chose to highlight the CURE project because it is an exciting, collaborative, multidisciplinary initiative that stands to introduce phages into an important medical context that isn’t commonly discussed as a possible target for phages: asthma. It will be exciting to watch how the project moves ahead, and to see whether it generates data that points to phages being potentially useful in treating asthma. And by making a positive impression at the level of the European Union, as it stands to do, perhaps the CURE project may help accelerate phage-friendly regulatory shifts in Europe.

Learn more


May 29, 2020
Update: since this post was written, we learned the following from Sofia Romagosa at the European Federation of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients’ Associations (EFA):

  • The partner from Sweden is no longer part of the CURE team
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